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Peru, officially Republic of Peru, country in western South America, bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil and Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. The area of Peru, including several offshore islands, is 1,285,216 sq km (496,225 sq mi), making it the third-largest South American country (only Brazil and Argentina are larger). Lima is the country’s capital and chief commercial centre.